Nausea and vomiting in adults

Nausea is that feeling you get once you think you would possibly throw up. Vomiting is once you actually throw up. These 2 symptoms can happen together. But sometimes people feel nauseous without throwing up, and a few people throw up without feeling nauseous first.

The most common causes include:

  • Food poisoning – this could happen if you eat food that has gone bad. It’s basically an infection in your stomach. Infections like these often also cause diarrhea. Different kinds of infections that affect the stomach or intestines may cause nausea and vomiting.
  • Dizziness or motion sickness – this could happen if you’re on a ship or in a car, or something else that moves. It may happen if there’s something wrong inside your ears that affects your balance.
  • Medicines – Many different medicines can cause nausea or vomiting. Some examples are antidepressants, antibiotics, vitamins, contraception pills, and pain medicines. People who are on chemotherapy for cancer treatment or who are under anaesthesia also often have nausea or vomiting. Sometimes, those who use cannabis (marijuana) over a long time have repeated episodes of vomiting.
  • Pregnancy – many ladies who are pregnant have nausea or vomiting. People sometimes call this “morning sickness,” but it can happen at any time of day.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) – GERD is a condition that causes the juices that are within the stomach to leak back up into the esophagus, the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. It can sometimes cause nausea.
  • Problems with the stomach or intestines – In some people, the stomach or intestines don’t move food along the way that they are supposed to. In others, the intestines can get blocked. Both of these problems can cause nausea or vomiting.
  • Migraine headaches – Some who get migraine headaches have nausea during their headaches.
  • Alcohol – Drinking too much alcohol can cause nausea and vomiting.

Call your doctor if your symptoms last longer than each day or 2, otherwise you have severe symptoms. you should also call if you:

  • Have chest or belly pain
  • Throw up blood or something that appears like coffee grounds
  • Have a bowel movement with blood, or a bowel movement that is black and looks like tar
  • Have a fever beyond 101ºF
  • Have a severe headache or stiff neck
  • Feel very tired or have trouble getting up
  • Show signs of dehydration (meaning that your body has lost an excessive amount of water).
  • You can:

    • Drink plenty of fluids, if possible
    • Try eating, but start with foods that have lots of fluid in them. If this goes well, you can try soft, bland foods. Foods that are high in carbohydrates (“carbs”), like bread or saltine crackers, can help settle your stomach. Some people also find that ginger helps with nausea. you must avoid foods that have lots of fat in them. they’ll make nausea worse. Call your doctor if your symptoms come back once you attempt to eat.
    • Avoid strong smells, like the smell of perfume

If you have been vomiting lots for more than a day, your doctor will ask you lots of inquiries to attempt to learn what could be causing your symptoms. He or she might also:

  • Give you fluids through a thin tube that goes in a vein, called an “IV”
  • Give you medicines that control nausea and vomiting. Some examples include:
  •  Prochlorperazine
  • Promethazine (brand name: Phenergan)
  • Metoclopramide (brand name: Reglan)
  • Ondansetron (brand name: Zofran)
  • Schedule tests for you to assist learn why you have nausea or vomiting, such as a stomach X-ray
Dr. Harsh J Shah